Cheese | Peynir
Cheese (peynir) production predates recorded history. It is believed that cheese first appeared between 8000 and 7000 BC (concurrent with the domestication of livestock). Although there is no conclusive indication to where cheese-making originated, archeological evidence suggests that it first appeared in the fertile Mesopotamian Plains between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. There are two general theories about how the first cheese was created. The first theory is that cheese was created by nomadic merchants who transported milk in pouches made from the stomach lining sheep and goats. Combined with the rennet in the lining of the pouch and heat of the sun, the milk to separated into curd and whey. Similarly, the second theory suggests that milk (set out as an offering to the Gods) curdled and became a soft cheese. In either case, the first pictorial evidence of cheese-making (dating back to 3000 BC) was found on a frieze at the Mesopotamian Temple of Ninhursag.
At the pinnacle of the Roman Empire, the craft of cheese-making was refined to create longer lasting more flavorful cheeses. Cheese held a celebrated status in Roman culture. In the Odyssey, written near the end of the 8th century BC, Homer describes the one-eyed giant, Cyclops, peacefully tending to his cheesemaking. Through Roman conquest and trade, cheese spread to the furthest reaches of the kingdom. By the Middle Ages (500 AD to 1500 AD), cheese and cheese making had reached Europe. In fact, many cheeses which are well-known today were first produced during Middle Ages. Examples include Gorgonzola (879 AD) and Cheddar (1500 AD). By the 10th century the craft had spread throughout continent and new varieties of cheese began to emerge including Parmigiano-Reggiano (1597 AD), Gouda (1697 AD) and Camembert (1791 AD).
Common Varieties of Turkish Cheese
Today, there are hundreds of varieties of cheese available in Turkey. Cheese is made in every region and local varieties often include the name of the area in which they are produced. As examples, ‘Izmir Tulum’ is produced in Izmir and ‘Van Otlu Peynir’ is from Van. Approximately, 10% of the cheese is made from sheep and goat milk. The balance is made from cow milk. Common varieties of cheese include Beyaz, Burgu, Dil, Hellumi, Kaşar, Tulum, Lor and Örgü Peynir.
Produced from unpasteurized sheep, cow or goat milk, Beyaz Peynir is produced by adding rennet to milk. The curdled milk is then strained and salted in brine. The result is a salty, creamy cheese similar to feta.
Made using sheep or cow milk, Burgu Peynir is produced by adding rennet to milk. The curdled milk is then strained, added to boiling water, stretched until it is fibrous and then braided. Burgu is similar to braided string cheese.
Made using sheep or cow milk, Dil Peynir is produced by adding rennet to milk. The curdled milk is then strained, added to boiling water and then stretched until it is fibrous. Dil is similar to mozzarella.
Hellumi is semi-hard, unripened, brined cheese made from a mixture of goat and sheep milk (and occasionally cow milk). The result is a salty cheese with a high melting point. Hellumi is commonly fried or grilled.
Kaşar is available fresh (taze) or aged (eski). Kaşar is a firm cheese most commonly made from cow milk. Kaşar can can be sliced, melted, grated or eaten plain. It is commonly used in sandwiches and in salads.
Tulum is made of from sheep, goat, cow or buffalo milk (or a combination of them). Traditionally, Tulum is made from goat milk and ripened in a goatskin casing (called tulum in Turkish).
Lor is a fresh, soft cheese that is similar to Ricotta, Greek Myzithra and Anthotiro cheeses. Low in salt, low in fat and high in protein, Lor is often a favorite of the health conscious. Lor is commonly used in baked goods.
Made using sheep or cow milk, Örgü Peynir is produced by adding rennet to milk. The curdled milk is then strained, added to boiling water, stretched until it is fibrous. The result is similar to string cheese.
In Turkey, cheese is consumed at all times throughout the day. It is a featured requirement at breakfast and can even be served as a meze.
Cheese is made in every region of Turkey and local varieties often include the name of the area in which they are produced. As examples, ‘Izmir Tulum’ is produced in Izmir and ‘Van Otlu Peynir’ is from Van.
Cheese is available all year.
Indulge in more Delicious Turkish Dairy
Ayran | Salted Yoghurt
Ayran is a yoghurt based beverage. Although there is no evidence to the origins of ayran, it is believed to have originated in Southern Anatolia as a way to preserve yoghurt with salt.
Clotted Cream | Kaymak
Kaymak is a creamy dairy product similar to clotted cream. In Turkey, the decadent cream has been produced for centuries. The allure of kayak is well-documented. In fact, to avoid the temptation, in 1573 women were prohibited from entering kaymak shops.
Ice Cream | Dondurma
The history of the Turkish ice cream (dondurma) dates back between 300 and 500 years to the Anatolian city of Maraş. An abundant supply of ice, salep, goat milk and mastic resin led to the creation of a creamy, dense, ice cream called dondurma.
Yoghurt | Yoğurt
Yoghurt is a derivation of the Turkish word yoğurt. It is believed that yoghurt first appeared between 8000 and 7000 BC (concurrent with the domestication of livestock). For thousands of years, yogurt has been an indispensible element in Turkish cuisine.
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